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Hollow Verbs (الأَجوَف)

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Ajwaf  verbs are those whose second (middle) letter is sick (أ-ي-و) in its root form.

  • Most Ajwaf verbs have an Alif (ا ) as its second or middle letter.
  • The origin of the middle Alif is mostly a Waw (و ) or a Yaa (ي ), that is turned into an Alif.
  • There are a few verbs in which the Waw or Yaa are not turned into an Alif.
  • To know the origin of the Alif, get the noun from the verb.

Examples: باعَ = to sell (v.) ► بَيْعْ = selling (n.)

صامَ= to fast (v.) ► صَوْمْ = fasting (n.)

  • If the middle radical is (و), then the first and second persons take Dhamma ( ُ ) on the first radical of the past tense. قال ◀ قول ◀ قُلتُ / قُلتَ
  • If the middle radical is (ي), then the first and second persons take Kasrah ( ِ ) on the first radical of the past tense. سار ◀ سير ◀ سِرتُ / سِرتَ
  • The Ajwaf verbs in past tense drop the weak letter if the verb is assigned to (نا الفاعلين, تاء الفاعل, نون النسوة) as in (قـلت- قـلنا- قـلن).
  • Ajwaf verbs in present tense drop the weak letter only if the verb is assigned to (نون النسوة) as in يقول يقُلنَ.
  • In the imperative tense the weak letter returns to its original (ا-و-ي) if the verb is assigned to (الف الاثنين – واو الجماعة – ياء المخاطبة)   as in قال ◀ قُولا قُولُوا قُولِي  and باعَ ◀ بيعا بيعوا بيعي
past tense Plural Dual Singular – Third Person “زَارُوا they visited” “زَارَا they visited” “زَارَ he visited” M “زُرْنَ they visited” “زَارَتا they visited” “زَارَتْ she visited” F Second Person “زُرْتُمْ you visited” “زُرْتُمَا you visited” “زُرْتَ you visited” M “زُرْتُنَّ you visited” “زُرْتُمَا you visited” “زُرْتِ you visited” F First Person “زُرْنَا we visited” “زُرْتُ I visited” M & F
present tense
Third Personيَزُورُونthey visitيَزَورَانthey visitيَزوُرْhe visitsM
يَزُرْنَthey visitتَزُورَانthey visitتَزوُرْshe visitsF
Second Personتَزُورُونyou visitتَزُورَانyou visitتَزُورyou visitM
تَزُرْنَyou visitتَزُورَانyou visitتَزُورِينyou visitF
First Personنَزُورwe visitأَزُورI visitM & F
imperative(command) tense
Third Person......M
Second PersonزَورُواvisitزُورَاvisitزُرْvisitM
زُرْنَvisitزُورَاvisitزُورِي visitF
First Person......M & F

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