Naqis Verbs (الناقص)

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A Naqis (Defective) verb is that whose third (last) letter is weak ( ا – و – ي ) in its root form.

i.e Naqis verbs have an Alif (ا ), a Yaa (ي ) or a Waw (و )  as its last letter.

CommandPresentPast
اِشْكِيَشْكُوشَكا
اِبْكِيَبْكِيبكى
اِسْعَيَسْعىسَعى
  • The final Alif is often turned into a Waw (و ) or a Yaa (ي ) when conjugating .
  • To know the origin of the Alif, get the noun form of the root verb.

Examples: – غَزا = to invade (v.) ► غَزْو = invasion (n.)

رَمَى = to throw (v.) ► رَمي= throwing (n.)

  • If the last letter is Alif, then for the past tense, it is returned to its original واو  or ياء except when associatied with واو الجماعة . In this case the week letter is dropped and replaced with a Fatha. For eg.: سعى ◀ سعيٌ ◀ سَعَيْتُ / سَعيتَ / سَعينا / سَعَوْا .
  • If the last letter is Waw or Yaa, then for the past tense, the weak letter is dropped if the verb assigned to (واو الجماعة) and we put Dhamma on the letter before it. Eg.: نَسِيَ نَسُوا / خَشيَ خَشُوا
  • If the verb ends with Alif and is assigned to (تاء التأنيث), then for the past tense we drop the Alif, then add the ت as in دعت / سعت.
  • If the last letter is Alif then, for the present tense, it is returned to ي when the verb is assigned to (نون النسوة or الف الاثنين) as in سعى ◀ يسعين يسعيان, while with ياء المخاطبة and واو الجماعة, the weak letter is dropped and there will be a Fatha on the letter before it as in سعى ◀ يسعَون تسعَين.
  • In the present tense If the last letter was واو or ياء then we drop it when the verb assigned to واو الجماعة)  ) and add thamahُ to the letter before   as in يدعو يدعُون/يمشي يمشُون.
  • In the present tense If the last letter was واو او ياء then we drop it when the verb assigned to ياء المخاطبة    and add kasrahِ to the letter before   يدعو تدعِين/يمشي تمشِين.
  • In the imperative tense If the last letter was واو او ياء  we return the weak letter into its origin  واو  or  ياء  if and only if the verb assigned toنون النسوة او الف الاثنين   as in ادعون ادعوَا/اهدين اهديا  while if it is assigned to واو الجماعة then we should add ُ thama to the letter before ادعُوا /اهدُوا , and if it is assigned to ياء المخاطبة then we put ِ kasrah to the letter before ادعِي اهدِي.
  • In the imperative tense If the last letter was alif we return the weak letter into its origin واو او ياء  if and only if the verb assigned to  نون النسوة او الف الاثنين   as in اسعين اسعيا while  if it is assigned to   ياء المخاطبة or  واو الجماعة   then we should add َ fatha to the letter before as in اسعَوا اسعَي
past tense
Plural Dual Singular
Third Person سَعَوْاthey sought سَعَياthey sought سَعىhe sought M
سَعَيْنَthey sought سَعَتاthey sought سَعَتْshe sought F
Second Person سَعَيْتُمْyou sought سَعَيْتُماyou sought سَعَيْتَyou sought M
سَعَيْتُنَّyou sought سَعَيْتُماyou sought سَعَيْتِyou sought F
First Person سَعَيْناwe sought سَعَيْتُI sought M & F
present tense
Plural Dual Dual
Third Person يَسْعَوْنَthey seek يَسْعيانِthey seek يَسْعىhe seeks M
يَسْعَيْنَthy seek تَسْعيانِthey seek تَسْعىshe seeks F
Second Person تَسْعَوْنَyou seek تَسْعيانِyou seek تَسْعىyou seek M
تَسْعَيْنَyou seek تَسْعيانِyou seek تَسْعينَyou seek F
First Person نَسْعىwe seek أَسْعىI seek M & F
imperative(command) tense
Plural Dual Singular ..
Third Person .. .. .. M
.. .. .. F
Second Person إِسْعَوْاseek إِسْعَياseek إِسْعَseek M
إِسْعَيْنَseek إِسْعَياseek إِسْعَيْseek F
First Person .. .. .. M & F

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